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Extension and contraction signify the strains that occur in most materials along the loading directionunder the stress states of uniaxial tension and compression, respectively. An example of the usage of thisterminology is given by Ramsay and Huber (1987, R. Marrett, D.C.P. Peacock / Journal of Structural Geology 21 (1999) 1057±1063 1059p. 668), who connect positive tensile stresses with positive strain elongations and negative compressionalstresses with negative contractional elongations. Another term for contraction is shortening (e.g.Ramsay and Huber, 1983, p. 8).[1]